Diabetes is a chronic medical condition in which sugar, or glucose, levels build up in your bloodstream. The hormone insulin helps move the glucose from your blood into your cells, where it’s used for energy.
In type 2 diabetes, your body’s cells aren’t able to respond to insulin as well as they should. In later stages of the disease, your body may also not produce enough insulin.
Uncontrolled type 2 diabetes can lead to chronically high blood glucose levels, causing several symptoms and potentially leading to serious complications.
In type 2 diabetes, your body isn’t able to effectively use insulin to bring glucose into your cells. This causes your body to rely on alternative energy sources in your tissues, muscles, and organs. This is a chain reaction that can cause a variety of symptoms.
Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. The symptoms may be mild and easy to dismiss at first. The early symptoms may include:
As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and potentially dangerous.
体育投注网址If your blood glucose levels have been high for a long time, the symptoms can include:
If you have two or more of these symptoms, you should see your doctor. Without treatment, diabetes can become life-threatening. Discover other symptoms of type 2 diabetes.
Insulin is a naturally occurring hormone. Your pancreas体育投注网址 produces it and releases it when you eat. Insulin helps transport glucose from your bloodstream to cells throughout your body, where it’s used for energy.
If you have type 2 diabetes, your body becomes resistant to insulin. Your body is no longer using the hormone efficiently. This forces your pancreas to work harder to make more insulin.
Over time, this can damage cells in your pancreas体育投注网址. Eventually, your pancreas may not be able to produce any insulin.
If you don’t produce enough insulin or if your body doesn’t use it efficiently, glucose builds up in your bloodstream. This leaves your body’s cells starved for energy. Doctors don’t know exactly what triggers this series of events.
It may have to do with cell dysfunction in the pancreas or with cell signaling and regulation. In some people, the liver produces too much glucose. There may be a genetic predisposition to developing type 2 diabetes.
Most likely, it’s a combination of factors that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Find out more about the causes of diabetes.
You can effectively manage type 2 diabetes. Your doctor will tell you how often you should check your blood glucose levels体育投注网址. The goal is to stay within a specific range.
Follow these tips to manage type 2 diabetes:
体育投注网址Your doctor will explain how to recognize the early symptoms of blood sugar that’s too high or too low and what to do in each situation. They’ll also help you learn which foods are healthy and which foods aren’t.
Not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, it’s because your pancreas isn’t making enough insulin on its own. It’s crucial that you take insulin as directed. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.
In some cases, lifestyle changes are enough to keep type 2 diabetes under control. If not, there are several medications that may help. Some of these medications are:
Each of these medications can cause side effects. It may take some time to find the best medication体育投注网址 or combination of medications to treat your diabetes.
If your body can’t make enough insulin, you may need insulin therapy. You may only need a long-acting injection you can take at night, or you may need to take insulin several times per day. Learn about other medications that can help you manage diabetes.
Diet is an important tool to keep your heart healthy and blood glucose levels within a safe and healthy range体育投注网址. It doesn’t have to be complicated or unpleasant.
The diet recommended for people with type 2 diabetes is the same diet just about everyone should follow. It boils down to a few key actions:
There are certain foods and beverages that you should limit or avoid entirely. These include:
Skipping salty foods and fried foods is also recommended. Check out this list of other foods and drinks to steer clear of if you have diabetes.
Foods with heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids include:
Although these options for healthy fats are good for you, they’re also high in calories. Moderation is key. Opting for low-fat dairy products will also keep your fat intake under control. Discover more diabetes-friendly foods, from cinnamon to shirataki noodles.
Talk to your doctor about your personal nutrition and calorie goals. Together, you can come up with a diet plan that tastes great and suits your lifestyle needs. Explore carb counting and the Mediterranean diet, along with other approaches, here.
We may not understand the exact causes of type 2 diabetes, but we do know that certain factors can put you at increased risk.
Certain factors are out of your control:
You may be able to change these factors:
You’re also at increased risk if you’ve had gestational diabetes or prediabetes, two conditions caused by elevated glucose levels. Learn more about the factors that can increase your risk for diabetes.
Whether or not you have prediabetes, you should see your doctor right away if you have the symptoms of diabetes. Your doctor can get a lot of information from blood work. Diagnostic testing may include the following:
If you have diabetes, your doctor will provide you with information about how to manage the disease, including:
You may need to see an endocrinologist体育投注网址 who specializes in the treatment of diabetes. You’ll probably need to visit your doctor more often at first to make sure your treatment plan is working.
Early diagnosis is key to proper diabetes management. Find out more about how type 2 diabetes is diagnosed.
You can’t always prevent type 2 diabetes. There’s nothing you can do about your genetics, ethnicity, or age.
体育投注网址However, a few lifestyle tweaks can help delay or even prevent the onset of type 2 diabetes, whether or not you have diabetes risk factors such as prediabetes.
Your diet should limit sugar and refined carbohydrates and replace them with low glycemic whole grains, carbohydrates, and fiber. Lean meat, poultry, or fish provide protein. You also need heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids from certain kinds of fish, monounsaturated fats, and polyunsaturated fats. Dairy products should be low in fat.
It’s not only what you eat, but also how much you eat that matters. You should be careful about portion sizes and try to eat meals at about the same time every day.
Type 2 diabetes is associated with inactivity. Getting 30 minutes of aerobic exercise every day can improve your overall health. Try to add in extra movement throughout the day, too.
You’re more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you’re overweight. Eating a healthy, balanced diet and getting daily exercise should help you keep your weight under control. If those changes aren’t working, your doctor can make some recommendations for losing weight safely.
These changes in diet, exercise, and weight management work together to help keep your blood glucose levels within the ideal range all day long. Discover how curcumin, vitamin D, and even coffee can also help you prevent type 2 diabetes.
For many people, type 2 diabetes can be effectively managed. If not properly managed, it can affect virtually all of your organs and lead to serious complications, including:
Hypoglycemia can occur when your blood sugar is low. The symptoms can include shakiness, dizziness, and difficulty speaking. You can usually remedy this by having a “quick-fix” food or beverage, such as fruit juice, a soft drink, or a hard candy.
Hyperglycemia can happen when blood sugar is high. It’s typically characterized by frequent urination and increased thirst. Exercising can help lower your blood glucose level.
体育投注网址If you have diabetes while you’re pregnant, you’ll need to monitor your condition carefully. Diabetes that’s poorly controlled can:
体育投注网址It can also increase your baby’s risk of developing diabetes during their lifetime.
Diabetes is associated with a range of complications.
Women with diabetes are to have another heart attack after the first one. Their risk of heart failure is four times that of women without diabetes. Men with diabetes are to develop erectile dysfunction (ED).
Kidney damage and kidney failure can affect both women and men with the disease. Take these steps to lower your risk of kidney damage and other diabetes complications.
体育投注网址The reasons for this are complex, but risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:
体育投注网址The symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children are the same as those in adults. They include:
See your child’s doctor体育投注网址 immediately if they have these symptoms.
In 2018, the ADA that all children who are overweight and have additional diabetes risk factors be tested for prediabetes or type 2. Untreated diabetes can lead to serious and even life-threatening complications.
A random blood glucose test may reveal high blood glucose levels. A hemoglobin A1C test can provide more information about average blood glucose levels over a few months. Your child may also need a fasting blood glucose test.
If your child is diagnosed with diabetes, then their doctor will need to determine if it’s type 1 or type 2 before suggesting a specific treatment.
You can help lower your child’s risk by encouraging them to eat well and to be physically active every day. Get more information on type 2 diabetes, its effect on children, and how it’s becoming so common in this group that it’s no longer known as adult-onset diabetes.
The reports the following statistics:
Diabetes’ impact is widespread. It touches the lives of nearly half-a-billion of people around the world. View some infographics that shine a light on other diabetes statistics you should know.
体育投注网址Managing type 2 diabetes requires teamwork. You’ll need to work closely with your doctor, but a lot of the results depend on your actions.
Your doctor may want to perform periodic blood tests to determine your blood glucose levels. This will help determine how well you’re managing the disease. If you take medication, these tests will help gauge how well it’s working.
Because diabetes increases your risk of cardiovascular disease, your doctor will also monitor your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels.
If you have symptoms of heart disease, you may need additional tests. These tests may include an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) or a cardiac stress test.
体育投注网址Follow these tips to help manage your diabetes:
It may also be helpful to bring your family into the loop. Educate them about the warning signs of blood glucose levels that are too high or too low so that they can help in an emergency.
If everyone in your home follows a healthy diet and participates in physical activity, you’ll all benefit. Check out these apps that’ll help you live a better life with diabetes.
Last medically reviewed on May 28, 2019